Solenoid Valve Terminology C


Solenoid Valve Terminology C

Carbon Steel : Iron containing carbon in the form of carbides, about 0.1 to 0.3 percent carbon with no other alloying elements other than the sulphur, phosphorus, and other elements present in almost all steels.

Cap Screw : Cap Screw is a fastener having a head and whose shank is normally threaded throughout its entire length. Not used with a nut, but rather engagement is made with a female thread in the piece to be joined.

Capacity Factor : See flow factors

Cast : The form of a particular part of a valve, where the basic shape is formed by moulding rather than fabricating.

Cast Iron : The common term for cast Gray iron or iron containing flake carbon in the range of 2% to 4.3%. Cast iron is brittle, exhibiting very little ductility before fracturing.

Casting : A part typically meal that has been produced or formed by pouring hot molten metal into a mould.

Certificate of Conformity : Certificate of conformity or CofC is a company headed letter or certificate supplied with the goods from the valve supplier stating that the goods are in accordance with the customer purchase order.

Chain Wheel Operated Valve (CWOV) : A valve mounted elsewhere either above, below or behind operated by an hand wheel via a chain and sprocket mechanism.

Characterised Ball or Gate Valve : A ball valve or gate valve whose port has been specifically modified to provide a specific flow adjustment or throttling capability.

Charpy Test : Charpy test is a mechanical test conducted on a precisely machined sample of the steel to be tested. The sample is clamped in a special machine and subjected to a lateral hammer blow. This test provides a relative measure of the toughness of steel or its resistance to shock or impact loads. Often required for low temperature applications where testing is done at the expected minimum service temperature.

Check Valve or Non Return Valve : A one-directional valve which prevents reversal of flow by means of the check mechanism, the valve being opened by the flow of fluid and closed by the weight of the check mechanism when the flow ceases, or by back pressure.

Chevron Packing : Chevron packing is a type of packing used in packing boxes consisting of a nest of «V» cross-section rings.

CIF : CIF Cost Insurance and Freight including insurance charges, see latest Intercoms. Similar to F.O.B. Free On Board.

City Gate Gas Station : The metering and pressure reducing station where gas is transferred from a high pressure cross-country transmission line to a low pressure distribution piping system within a city or town.

Clapper : The hinged closure element or door of a swing disc check non return valve.

Clarified Water : Clarified water is process water with posible small fines or fragments of paper stock.

Class : A designation of pressure capability or pressure rating expressed as a dimensionless number. The class rating charts give actual pounds per square inch maximum allowable pressure at a given temperature.

Clevis : A "U" shaped connecting yoke at the end of a valve stem or rod, between the ends of which a gate or other valve part may be pinned or bolted

Closing Time : The closing time of a valve is the time required for the valve to move from the fully open position into the fully closed position.

Closure Element : The moving part of a control valve, positioned within the flow stream, that controls flow through the valve. either Ball, Gate, Plug, Clapper, Disc etc, are the specific names for closure elements.

Coal Gasification : The process of manufacturing natural gas from coal

Coils for solenoid valves : A solenoid coil is basically an electro magnet or copper wire wound around a central bobine that generates a magnetic filed when electrical power is applied. Solenoid coils come is various sizes, control voltages from 6 volt to 415volt, power levels from 1 watt to 150 watts, can be round metal cased with electrical wires or thermal set resin square or rectangular with 2 or 2 +earth electrical spades on one side to accept an electrical connector. Designed to magnetically lift (solenoid) an internal valve armature to open or close a valve.

Coil Class : The class of solenoid coil is the effective insulation temperature rating or stability during constant heating with ambient temperatures up to +35ºC. The temperature rating or heat class of a solenoid valve and not the over temperature, which is typically given for example as a Class..

Coil Power Ratings : Solenoid coils all have assigned power ratings which is the amount of electrical power they are designed to consume, the higher the power level the stronger the magnetic field generated.

  • DC (Direct current) solenoid coils power level is given as Watts, the power of this coil is stable. A 15 watt solenoid coil working at 24vDC will consume 0.625 Amps. Watts = Volts x Amps hence Amps = 15 watts divided by 24 volts = 0.625 Amps.
  • AC (alternating Current) solenoid coils power level is given as VA (Volt Amps), the power of this coil has two stages. Stage 1 INRUSH CURRENT is a higher energy requirement to lift an armature assembly. Stage 2 HOLDING CURRENT is a reduced energy requirement as it is simply holding the armature in position. Or another analogy is a weight lifter - requires a lot of strength to lift a weight but when arms locked in position is much easier to hold.

An example of a 17VA AC coil would be 17VA holding but 23VA Inrush. At 230vAC this would equate to (W=Volts X Amps) Inrush 0.1 Amps, Holding 0.0739 Amps.

Coil Voltage : Solenoid coil Voltage (Volts) is required voltage at which the solenoid coil must be energised, typically with a small tolerance of +/- 10%, so a 230 volt solenoid coil would work correctly between 207 volt and 253 volts.

Compressor : A device which converts mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic energy into increased gas or typically air pressure.

Concentric : A valve having the same centres.

Connector : Electrical DIN 43650 connectors provide a reliable interface for connection / disconnection from hydraulic and pneumatic valves, pressure switches, motor drives and other electrically driven equipment and components. Electrical connectors are available in a range of specific sizes such as:

  • Form A EN175301-803 ISO4400 - 28mm square (18mm between electrical contacts)
  • Industrial Form B - 28mm by 21mm (11mm between electrical flat shape contacts)
  • Form B EN175301-803 (ISO6952) - 28mm by 21mm (10mm between electrical ] shape contacts)
  • Form C ISO15217 - 15.9mm by 15.6mm (8mm between electrical contacts)

Contaminant : A particle or unusual material which is foreign to the typical fluid or gas media of the valve, ie.e the valve has been contaminated.

Control Valve : A valve that controls a process variable, such as pressure, flow or temperature by modulating or simply opening in response to a signal from a controller.

Controller : A control device that measures a controlled system variable, compares it with a predetermined system setting and signals the actuator or valve to re-adjust the opening of the valve in order to re-establish the original control system settings.

Core : The core is the soft magnetic 430F stainless steel part of the solenoid valve sometimes referred to as the armature, which is the part that moves within the generated magnetic field.

Core Spring : The core spring or armature return spring typically 302 stainless steel that returns the armature to its default position when the solenoid coil is de-energised.

Core Tube : The core tube or armature tube is a solenoid valve stainless steel or brass tube which is closed at one end, isolates the media in the valve from the external solenoid coil and parts, that holds the armature and core spring. The core tube screws into or if flange mounted onto the valve bonnet or valve top cover.

Corrosion : The deterioration or loss of a material due to chemical action.

Crude Oil : Unrefined "crude" or "Raw" petroleum oil that has come directly from the oil well. Crude oil is classification according to API degree. The API degree indicates if crude oil floats on water or sinks. Light crude oils flow easily and contain more volatile components, while extra heavy crude oils are highly viscous to almost tar like and show a higher density. Intermediate crude oil will be between these levels.

  • Light Crude Oil: API gravity higher than 31.1º API (less than 870Kg/m³)
  • Medium Crude Oil: API gravity from 31.1º API to 22.3º API (870 to 920 Kg/m³)

Crude oil according to sulphur content can be attributed as follows:

  • Sweet crude oil with Sulphur content up to 1%
  • Sour crude oil with Sulphur content above 1%.

Cryogenic : Cryogenic applies to any temperature below -150°C

Cv flow factor : The capacity flow factor for a valve or valve flow coefficient, specifies the number of gallons of water (20°C) per minute that will flow through the valve when fully open with a pressure drop of 1 psi. Cv can also be given as litres a minute of water with 1 bar pressure drop if specified as so.

CWP - cold working pressure : The maximum working pressure in PSI (pounds per square inch), in which a valve may be operated. Sometimes referred to as MWP or Maximum working Pressure.

Cycle : A single complete valve operation from fully closed to fully open and back to fully closed again is called a complete cycle.

Cyclic Timers : Much like timers these are electrical devices installed into electrical circuits that control the electrical power supply to the valve and will offer a pre-set adjustable automated control for valves. As the timer works on a cycle it will constantly repeat the same set cycle until electrical power is removed, when power is reapplied the cycle timer will begin it cycle from the beginning. Cycle timers are typically adjustable between 0.5 to 10 seconds power ON, with an adjustable power off cycle between 0.5 to 60 minutes, other time sequences are available along with single shot and delay shot timers.

Current Drain : The amount of current that flows through a solenoid coil when it is energised / powered