The world of solenoid valves has developed its own abbreviations and terminology to deal with the ever increasing permutations of functionality and layout of the solenoid valve as its range grows to meet the demands of the industries it serves.
For those new to solenoid valves and even those who work with them everyday it is often useful to have a reference to terms commonly used when describing a solenoid valve, its function or specification.
ACME Thread : A flat topped screw thread for power transmission. This thread has a 29° included angle between adjacent thread faces compared with the 60° angle of the U.S. standard «V» thread.
Actuator : A device that converts manual, hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical energy into mechanical motion to open or close a valve.
AGA - American Gas Association : The American Gas Association represents companies delivering natural gas to customers to help meet their energy needs. AGA members are committed to delivering natural gas safely, reliably, cost-effectively and in an environmentally responsible way. AGA advocates the interests of its members and their customers, and provides information and services promoting efficient demand and supply growth, and operational excellence, in the safe, reliable and efficient delivery of natural gas.
Aggressive Media : Aggressive media means that the liquid or gas being controlled is very corrosive such as strong Acids and Alkali's.
Air Operated Valve : An air operated valve is a valve that utilises compressed air typically from 3 to 8 bar pressure to change state or move, either directly or indirectly via solenoid control. Examples of air operated valves would be angle sat piston valves, pneumatic solenoid valves, pneumatic cylinders, air actuators and externally controlled coaxial valves.
Air Vent Valve : A valve installed into a liquid pipeline and an air vent valve at the top open to atmosphere which is controlled by a floating ball lever valve. The valve will automatically let air or gas out of or away from a liquid carrying pipe.
AISI American Iron & Steel Institute : AISI is an association of steel makers which sets standards for the chemical and physical properties of steel and iron in various shapes and forms, such as: pipe, tubing, sheet, strip, wire. AISI’s Mission is to influence public policy, educate and shape public opinion in support of a strong, sustainable U.S. and North American steel industry committed to manufacturing products that meet society’s needs.
All welded Construction Valve : A valve that has been completely welded and cannot be disassembled or repaired on site.
Alloy Steel : Steel consisting mostly of Iron with some other elements such as Chromium, Nickel, Manganese or Vanadium that have been added during the manufacturing process.
Ambient Temperature : The ambient temperature refers to the temperature in °C or °F of the surrounding atmosphere. For example as with common solenoid valves the ambient temperature rating will be +50°C which means the coil can be energised and used in an area up to but not exceeding +50°C.
Amp : Amps (Amperes) is the measurement of electrical current when the solenoid valve is energised. Amps = Watts divided by Volts. Typically the lower the voltage the higher the Amperes, and the higher the voltage the lower the Amperes.
Anchor Pin : A pin welded onto the body of ball valves. This pin aligns the adapter plate and restrains the plate and gear operator from moving while the valve is being operated.
Angle Pattern Valve : Angle pattern valve is a valve whose ends are at right angles to each other for installation at a junction between vertical and horizontal pipelines. Angle pattern valve can also be a valve whose main body or actuator are at an angle greater too or less than 90° to the inlet and outlet ports, such as an angle seat pneumatic piston valve.
API American Petroleum Institute : The principal U.S. oil company trade association. It has some standards and specification writing functions, such as well head components and pipeline valves.
API SPEC 6D : Specification for Pipeline Valves. API Specification 6D is an adoption of ISO 14313: 1999, Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries-Pipeline Transportation Systems-Pipeline Valves. This International Standard specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, manufacturing, testing and documentation of ball, check, gate and plug valves for application in pipeline systems.
API 526 : Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves. The standard is a purchase specification for flanged steel pressure relief valves. Basic requirements are given for direct spring-loaded pressure relief valves and pilot-operated pressure relief valves as follows: orifice designation and area; valve size and pressure rating, inlet and outlet; materials; pressure temperature limits; and centre to face dimensions, inlet and outlet.
API 527 : Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves R(2002). Describes methods of determining the seat tightness of metal- and soft-seated pressure relief valves, including those of conventional, bellows, and pilot-operated designs.
ANSI/API STD 594 : Check Valves: Flanged, Lug, Wafer and Butt-welding. API Standard 594 covers design, material, face-to-face dimensions, pressure-temperature ratings, and examination, inspection, and test requirements for two types of check valves.
API 598 : Valve Inspection and Testing. The standard covers inspection, supplementary examination, and pressure test requirements for both resilient-seated and metal-to-metal seated gate, globe, plug, ball, check, and butterfly valves. Pertains to inspection by the purchaser and to any supplementary examinations the purchaser may require at the valve manufacturer's plant.
ANSI/API 599 : Metal Plug Valves - Flanged, Threaded and Welding Ends. A purchase specification that covers requirements for metal plug valves with flanged or butt-welding ends, and ductile iron plug valves with flanged ends, in sizes NPS 1 through NPS 24, which correspond to nominal pipe sizes in ASME B36.10M. Valve bodies conforming to ASME B16.34 may have flanged end and one butt-welding end. It also covers both lubricated and non lubricated valves that have two-way coaxial ports, and includes requirements for valves fitted with internal body, plug, or port linings or applied hard facings on the body, body ports, plug, or plug port.
ANSI/API 600 : Bolted Bonnet Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Modified National Adoption of ISO 10434:1998.
API 602 : Compact Steel Gate Valves - Flanged, Threaded, Welding, and Extended-Body Ends. The standard covers threaded-end, socket-welding-end, butt-welding-end, and flanged-end compact carbon steel gate valves in sizes NPS4 and smaller.
ANSI/API 603 : Corrosion-Resistant, Bolted Bonnet Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends. The standard covers corrosion-resistant bolted bonnet gate valves with flanged or butt-weld ends in sizes NPS 1/2 through 24, corresponding to nominal pipe sizes in ASME B36.10M, and Classes 150, 300, and, 600, as specified in ASME B16.34.
ANSI/API 607 : Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter Turn Valves. The standard covers the requirements for testing and evaluating the performance of straightway, soft-seated quarter-turn valves when the valves are exposed to certain fire conditions defined in this standard. The procedures described in this standard apply to all classes and sizes of such valves that are made of materials listed in ASME B16.34.
API 609 : Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- and Wafer-Type. The standard covers design, materials, face-to-face dimensions, pressure-temperature ratings, and examination, inspection, and test requirements for gray iron, ductile iron, bronze, steel, nickel-base alloy, or special alloy butterfly valves that provide tight shut off in the closed position and are suitable for flow regulation.
API 6FA : Specification for Fire Test for Valves. The standard covers the requirements for testing and evaluating the performance of API Spec 6A and Spec 6D valves when exposed to specifically defined fire conditions.
API 6FC : Fire Test for Valve with Automatic Backseats. The standard covers the requirements for testing and evaluating the performance of API Spec 6A and Spec 6D valves with automatic backseats when exposed to specifically defined fire conditions.
API 6RS : Referenced Standards for Committee 6, Standardization of Valves and Wellhead Equipment.
API 11V6 : Design of Continuous Flow Gas Lift Installations Using Injection Pressure Operated Valves. The standard sets guidelines for continuous flow gas lift installation designs using injection pressure operated valves.
ANSI/API RP 11V7 : Recommended Practice for Repair, Testing, and Setting Gas Lift Valves. The standard applies to repair, testing, and setting gas lift valves and reverse flow (check) valves.
API 520-1 : Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries: Part I - Sizing and Selection. The recommended practice applies to the sizing and selection of pressure relief devices used in refineries and related industries for equipment that has a maximum allowable working pressure of 15 psig (1.03 bar g or 103 kPa g) or greater.
API 520-2 : Recommended Practice 520: Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries-Part II, Installation. The recommended practice covers methods of installation for pressure-relief devices for equipment that has a maximum allowable working pressure of 15 psig (1.03 bar g or 103 kPa g) or greater. It covers gas, vapour, steam, two-phase and incompressible fluid service.
ANSI/API 574 : Inspection Practices for Piping System Components. The standard covers the inspection of piping, tubing, valves (other than control valves) and fittings used in petroleum refineries.
ANSI/API 576 : Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices. The recommended practice describes the inspection and repair practices for automatic pressure-relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical industries.
ANSI/API 608 : Metal Ball Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends. The standard covers Class 150 and Class 300 metal ball valves that have either butt-welding or flanged ends and are for use in on-off service.
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers : A professional society that publishes technical books, papers, codes and standards, of principal interest is the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which is referenced for many aspects of valve making, although not for the valves themselves.
Assisted Lift : An assisted lift solenoid valve sometimes known as kick pilot or hung diaphragm have a mechanical connection between the armature and either a diaphragm or piston to "assist" the valve into the open or closed position and thus does not reply or system pressure differentials for operation and control.
ASTM International : ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally recognised leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence.
ATEX - Hazardous Area : ATEX hazardous area is a European initiative to ensure the safety of products such as solenoid valves used in potentially explosive gas and or dust atmospheres. It is an EU law that all products that could provide ignition to a potentially explosive atmosphere to be supplied to specific requirements, under controlled conditions by a manufacturer certified compliant to the directive by an independent notification body.
It is not simply a generated spark by a solenoid coil caused by coil failure or short circuit it also applies to temperature limitations under normal working conditions to avoid flash point ignitions. ATEX solenoid valve have been manufactured to comply with ATEX standards such as EEx m II T4 encapsulated coils with thermal fuses, EEx d II C T4, T5 or T6 coils encased in stainless steel or aluminium flame proof enclosure and finally EEx ia IIC T4 or T6 intrinsically safe low power coils.
Atmospheric Gases : Atmospheric gases are gases that are found in the atmosphere which we breath and are also found in compressed air systems. Atmospheric gases are by volume, 78.09% Nitrogen, 20.95% Oxygen, 0.93% Argon, 0.039% Carbon Dioxide and small trace amounts of other gases such as Argon 0.93%, Carbon Dioxide 0.038%, Krypton 0.001%, Methane 0.0001%, Helium 0.0005% and Neon 0.0018%. There is of course traces of water vapour, dust and sand particles to be included which are suspended in the air, hence the need for filtration and water removal systems for air compressors.
Atmospheric Pressure : See Pressure. Atmospheric pressure is typically measured at 1 bar or 14.71 psi, being the measured atmosphere or ambient air pressure at sea level.
AWS American welding Society : American Welding Society (AWS) was founded in 1919 as a multifaceted, non profit organization with a goal to advance the science, technology and application of welding and related joining disciplines. AWS New World Headquarters render 2012 From factory floor to high-rise construction, from military weaponry to home products, AWS continues to lead the way in supporting welding education and technology development to ensure a strong, competitive and exciting way of life for all Americans.
Austenitic Stainless Steel : The common stainless steel, where the primary micro structure is austenite and the composition primarily iron, but also includes both chromium and nickel. The stainless steel is designated as 300 series such as 302, 303, 304, 316, CF8M, etc.